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Dialectology and Typology

                                                                                               Pavia Spring School (April 2009):
 

Standard and non-standard languages in Europe: future and vitality of dialects, language contacts and new linguistic scenarios in today’s Europe

 

 Bernd Kortmann

(University of Freiburg)

 

Course title: Dialectology and Typology

 

Over the last ten years, the study of grammatical variation in dialects of European languages has developed into a thriving field of linguistic research, with quite a number of research projects geared towards the study of dialect syntax springing up independently in Europe (especially for Germanic and Romance dialects). One of the major driving forces behind this development has been the teaming up of dialectologists and typologists. The basic idea informing this new partnership is that both fields are bound to profit from each other by bringing together what is known about the range and patterns of, as well the responsible factors for, language-internal and cross-linguistic variation in morphological and syntactic structure. In the course of the last few years, this idea and the resulting research programme has been worked out in different directions, especially (but not exclusively) by both small- and large-scale explorations of traditional English dialects and non-standard varieties of English around the world.

 

In this course of the Pavia Spring School the current state of this still very young partnership of dialectology and typology will be reviewed. Based on recent publications, as yet unpublished work as well as ongoing research projects a survey will be given of the latest developments and the future perspectives of both this partnership and dialect syntactic research in Europe, in general. The central question informing this class will be what dialectologists and typologists can, should and maybe even must learn from each other. This is what the programme will look like:

 

1.         Dialectology meets typology: Setting the scene for a new partnership

2.         European dialect syntax and the typological dimension

3.         Vernacular universals (?)

4.         The complexity of grammars: From the study of large-scale variation in English to language typology

5.1       The historical dimension: Grammaticalization processes in non-standard varieties; exploring dialect   

               syntax in earlier periods

5.2       The theoretical dimension: Modelling dialect variation in different syntactic theories

 

Course reading: For each of the five sessions some reading assignments will be given below. All of the texts will be discussed in the relevant session, but reading 2-3 texts for each session will suffice. The texts are (or, as of 1 April, will be) available as pdf-files from my homepage:

http://www.anglistik.uni-freiburg.de/seminar/abteilungen/sprachwissenschaft/ls_kortmann/Courses/Kortmann/DandT/

The general reading list includes additional recent book publications which participants might find useful if they want to follow up individual points addressed in the course. Finally, there is a list of links to homepages providing up-to-date information on dialect syntax projects in Europe.

 

Day-to-day programme

Monday

1.   Dialectology meets typology: Setting the scene for a new partnership

Auer, P. 2004. "Non-standard evidence in syntactic typology – Methodological remarks on the use of dialect data vs spoken language data." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 69-92.

Bisang, W. 2004. "Dialectology and typology – An integrative perspective." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 11-45.

Cornips, Leonie and Karen Corrigan. 2005. "Toward an integrated approach to syntactic variation: A retrospective and prospective synopsis." In: Cornips, L./K. Corrigan, eds. Syntax and Variation: Reconciling the Biological and the Social. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 1-27.

Kortmann, Bernd. 2003. "Comparative English dialect grammar: A typological approach." In: Palacios, I. M./M. J. López Couso/P. Fra/E. Seoane, eds. Fifty Years of English Studies in Spain (1952:2002). A Commemorative Volume. Santiago de Compostela: University of Santiago. 63-81.

Kortmann, B. in press. "Areal variation in syntax." In: Schmidt, J.E./P. Auer, eds. Language and Space: Theory and Methods. [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 

HANDOUT

 

Tuesday

2.   European dialect syntax and the typological dimension

Goebl, H. 2001. "Arealtypologie und Dialektologie." In: Haspelmath, M. et al., eds. Language Typology and Language Universals. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1471-1491.

De Vogelaer, Gunter. 2006. "Actuation, diffusion, and universals. Change in the pronominal system in Dutch dialects." Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 73: 259-274.

Haspelmath, M. 2001. "The European linguistic area: Standard Average European." In: Haspelmath, M. et al., eds. Language Typology and Language Universals. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 1492-1510.

Kortmann, B. in press. "Die Rolle von (Nicht-Standard-)Varietäten in der europäischen (Areal-) Typologie." In: Hinrichs, U./N. Reiter/S. Tornow, eds., Eurolinguistik: Entwicklung und Perspektiven. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 165-187.

HANDOUT



Wednesday

3.   Vernacular Universals (?)

Chambers, Jack. 2004. "Dynamic typology and vernacular universals." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 127-145.

Kortmann, B. 2006. "Syntactic variation in English: A global perspective." In: Aarts, B./A. McMahon, eds. Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. 603-624.

Kortmann, B./B. Szmrecsanyi. in press. "Parameters of morphosyntactic variation in world Englishes: Prospects and limitations of searching for universals." In: Siemund, P. ed., Linguistic Universals and Language Variation. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Siemund, P. 2009 "Linguistic universals and vernacular data." In: Filppula, M./J. Klemola/H. Paulasto eds., Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond, London/New York: Routledge. 323-348.

Szmrecsanyi, B./B. Kortmann. 2008. "The morphosyntax of varieties of English worldwide: A quantitative perspective." Special issue of Lingua. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2007.09.016

Trudgill, P. 2009. "Vernacular universals and the sociolinguistic typology of English dialects." In: Filppula, M./J. Klemola/H. Paulasto eds., Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond, London/New York: Routledge. 304-322.

HANDOUT

76 FEATURES

Feature classes

 

 

Thursday

4.   The complexity of grammars: From the study of large-scale variation in English to language typology

Dahl, Ö. 2009. "Testing the assumption of complexity invariance: the case of Elfdalian and Swedish." In: Sampson, G./D. Gil/P. Trudgill, eds. Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 50-63.

Kortmann, B./B. Szmrecsanyi. in press. "World Englishes between Simplification and Complexification." In: Siebers, L./T. Hoffmann, eds. World Englishes: Problems - Properties – Prospects. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Miestamo, M. 2009. "Implicational hierarchies and grammatical complexity." In: Sampson, G./D. Gil/P. Trudgill, eds. Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 80-97.

Sampson, G. 2009. "A linguistic axiom challenged." In: Sampson, G./D. Gil/P. Trudgill, eds. Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1-18.

Trudgill, P. 2009. "Sociolinguistic typology and complexification." In: Sampson, G./D. Gil/P. Trudgill, eds. Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 98-109.

HANDOUT


Friday

5.1.   The historical dimension: Grammaticalization processes in non-standard varieties; exploring dialect syntax in earlier periods

Dahl, Ö. 2004. "Definite articles in Scandinavian: Competing grammaticalization processes in standard and non-standard varieties." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 147-180.

Kortmann, B. 2004. "Do as a tense and aspect marker in varieties of English." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 245-275.

Kortmann, B./S. Wagner. in press. "Changes and Continuities in Dialect Grammar." In: Hickey, R., ed. Eighteenth-Century English: Ideology and Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

van der Auwera, J./A. Neuckermans. 2004. "Jespersen’s cycle and the interaction of predicate and quantifier negation in Flemish." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 453-478.

van der Auwera, J./E. Schalley/G. De Vogelaer. in press. "Analogie und die Verbreitung der verbalen Kongruenz bei Imperativen, Konjunktionen und Antwortpartikeln". In: Harnisch, R., ed. Prozesse sprachlicher Verstärkung. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

HANDOUT I


 

5.2.   The theoretical dimension:  Modelling dialect variation in different syntactic theories

Adger, D./G. Trousdale. 2007. "Variation in English syntax: Theoretical implications." In: Trousdale, G./D. Adger, eds. Special Issue on Dialect Syntax. English Language and linguistics 11.2.: 261–278.

Dufter, A./J. Fleischer/G. Seiler. to appear 2009. "Introduction." In: Dufter, A./J. Fleischer/G. Seiler, eds. Describing and Modeling Variation in Grammar. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Henry, A. 2002. "Variation and syntactic theory." In: Chambers, J.K./P. Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes, eds., The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Malden: Blackwell. 267-282.

Seiler, G. 2004. "On three types of dialect variation and their implications for linguistic theory. Evidence from verb clusters in Swiss German dialects." In: Kortmann, B., ed. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 367-399.

HANDOUT II


General reading list

Barbiers, S./L. Cornips/S. van der Kleij, eds. 2002. Syntactic Microvariation. Amsterdam: SAND. http://www.meertens.nl/books/synmic/.

Barbiers, S./O. Koeneman/M. Lekakou/M. van der Ham, eds. 2008. Microvariation in Syntactic Doubling. Bingley: Emerald Group.

Cornips, Leonie and Karen Corrigan, eds. 2005. Syntax and Variation: Reconciling the Biological and the Social. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Dufter, A./J. Fleischer/G. Seiler, eds. to appear 2009. Describing and Modeling Variation in Grammar. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Filppula, M./J. Klemola/H. Paulasto, eds. 2009. Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond. London/New York: Routledge.

Kortmann, B., ed. 2004. Dialectology meets Typology. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kortmann, B. and E. Schneider in collab. with K. Burridge/R. Mesthrie/C. Upton, eds. (2004). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology; Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Nerbonne, J./F. Manni, eds. 2009. The Forests behind the Trees. Special Issue of Lingua.

Nevalainen, T./J. Klemola/M. Laitinen, eds. 2006. Types of Variation: Diachronic, Dialectal and Typological Interfaces. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Siemund, P. in press. Linguistic Universals and Language Variation. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Trousdale, G./D. Adger, eds. 2007. Special issue on dialect syntax. English Language and Linguistics 11.2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Current European projects on dialect syntax

 European dialects

  • European Dialect Syntax (Edisyn) (Sept. 2005 – Sept. 2010)

http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/edisyn/; http://www.dialectsyntax.org/

 

Dutch/Flemish dialects

  • Syntactic Atlas of Dutch and Flemish Dialects (SAND) (Jan. 2000 – Dec. 2003)

http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/sand/sandeng.html

  • Dynamische Syntactische Atlas van de Nederlandse Dialecten (DynaSAND)

http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/sand/zoeken/

English dialects

  • Freiburg English Dialect Corpus (FRED) (2000–2005)

http://www.anglistik.uni-freiburg.de/institut/lskortmann/FRED/

  • The Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English (VARIENG)

http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/

Swiss German dialects

  • Swiss German Dialect Syntax (SADS) (Jan. 2000 – Aug. 2008)

http://www.ds.unizh.ch/dialektsyntax/

Scandinavian dialects

  • Nordic Centre of Excellence in Microcomparative Syntax (NORMS) (2005–2010)

http://norms.uit.no/; as the core of this centre:

  • ScanDiaSyn – Scandinavian Dialect Syntax

http://uit.no/scandiasyn/

 

Italian dialects

  • Syntactic Atlas of Northern Italy (ASIS) (1998–2004)

http://asis-cnr.unipd.it/index.en.html

Portuguese dialects

  • Portuguese Dialect Syntax (CORDIAL-SIN) (1999–2003)

http://www.clul.ul.pt/sectores/variacao/cordialsin/projecto_cordialsin.php

 

Romani dialects

  • The Morphosyntactic Typology of Romani Dialects (Feb. 2001 - Dec 2003)

http://romani.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/